Yıl 2019, Cilt 10 , Sayı 17, Sayfalar 560 - 595 2019-03-31

Demokratik Siyasal Kültür İçin Temsilde Adalet Araştırması
The Research of Justice in Representation for Democratic Political Culture

Uğur ÜNAL [1]


Demokratik gelişmenin parlamentoların doğuşu ve gelişimiyle paralellik gösterdiği tartışılmazdır. Söz konusu süreçler seçim kurumunun gelişimini de beraberinde getirmiştir. Aristokrasi ile birlikte burjuvazinin monarşizme karşı mücadelesi parlamentorların önemini artırmış, bu durum beraberinde seçimle ilgili normları da ön plana taşımıştır. Hatta, ‘Oy Hakkı’na kimlerin sahip olması gerektiği konusu, oldukça uzun bir süre en temel tartışma sorununu oluşturmuştur. Önsel uygulamalarda oy hakkı sınırlı bir kesime tanınmışken, tarihsel ilerlemede ilke olarak her yurttaşa tanınması kabulüne ulaşılmıştır. Dolayısıyla, ‘Sınırlı  Oy’dan ‘Genel Oy’a yönelik gelişme sonucunda, günümüzde seçimlerde genel oy ilkesini kabul etmeyen rejimler demokratik sayılmazlar. Hatta bu hak, ‘İnsan Hakları Evrensel Sözleşmesi’ ile de uluslararası hukuk açısından güvence altına alınmıştır. Seçim kurumunun gelişimi açısından oy verme usulleri (yöntemleri) noktasında da uzunca süre anlaşmazlıklar yaşanmıştır. Seçimler tek dereceli mi, yoksa iki dereceli mi yapılmalı; çoğunluk mu yoksa nispi yöntem mi uygulanmalı tartışmaları çok fazla yaşanmıştır. Bu farklı usuller ayrı ayrı denenmiş ve demokrasilerde gelişmenin daha çok tek dereceli ve nispi seçim usulünün yönünde olduğu görülmüştür. Ancak, bugüne kadar seçim sistemlerinin teknik olarak gelişimine karşın siyasal kültürün temsilde adaleti sağlama yönünde tam demokratik bir aşamaya evrildiğini belirtmek çok mümkün değildir. Dünya Parlamentolar Birliği’nin yıllık raporlarına göre, parlamentolarda kadın ve erkek vekil temsiliyetinde adil bir dağılıma ulaşılamadığı görülmektedir. Türkiye’de de durumun nasıl geliştiğine yönelik emprik veriler elde etmek amacıyla, 24 Haziran 2018 Genel Milletvekili Seçimleri istatistiki betimsel incelemeye tabi tutulmuş, Türk siyasal kültürünün gelişim aşamaları elde edilen veriler aracılığıyla sorgulanmıştır. 

It is indisputable that democratic development is parallel to the emergence and development of parliaments. These processes brought about the development of the election institution. Together with the aristocracy, the bourgeoisie's struggle against monarchism increased the importance of the parliaments and brought the norms related to election to the forefront. In fact, the issue of who should have the right to vote, has created the most basic discussion problem for quite a long time. While the right to vote was granted to a limited number of people in pre-practices, as a result of historical progress, in principle, the recognition of this right was reached for every citizen. Therefore, the regimes that do not accept the principle of general vote in the elections as a result of the development from the limited vote to the general vote, are not considered democratic. Even this right is guaranteed by the Universal Convention on Human Rights in terms of international law.There has also been a long period of disagreement at the point of voting procedures (methods) in terms of the development of the electoral system. Elections should be single-stage or two-stage; there have been a lot of debates on whether the plurality system or the proportional representation system should be applied. These different methods have been tried separately and it has been seen that the development in democracies is mostly in the direction of single-stage and proportional representation electoral system. However, to date, it is not possible to say that the political culture has evolved into a fully democratic phase in order to provide justice despite the technological developments in the electoral system.  According to the annual reports of The World Constitution and Parliament Association, there is no fair distribution of parliaments in the representation of women and men. The aim of this study is to analyze the electoral systems in Turkey and obtain empirical data.  In this regard, the General Parliamentary Elections held throughout Turkey on 24 June 2018 were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis.  In conclusion, development stages of the Turkish political culture have been questioned through the data obtained.

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Orcid: 0000-0003-0294-0082
Yazar: Uğur ÜNAL (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: KIRGIZİSTAN-TÜRKİYE MANAS ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 31 Mart 2019

APA Ünal, U . (2019). The Research of Justice in Representation for Democratic Political Culture . OPUS Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi , 10 (17) , 560-595 . DOI: 10.26466/opus.484698