Yıl 2019, Cilt 10 , Sayı 17, Sayfalar 2168 - 2207 2019-03-31

USA’s Role in 1974 Cyprus Military Coup
ABD’nin 1974 Kıbrıs Askeri Darbesindeki Rolü

Altuğ GÜNAL [1]


Makarios, the president of the 1960 Republic of Cyprus, had incorporated his country into the Non-Aligned Movement and developed good relations with the East Camp, and particularly the USSR. In addition to these, he had problems with NATO Allies Greece and Turkey and took support from the communist party of Cyprus. Naturally, the US administrations had been discontent with these developments. In July 1974, Greece under junta rule, organized a coup in Cyprus and overthrew Makarios. While many European countries condemned the coup; USA gave a soft response, refrained from cutting its military aid to Greece, was reluctant to reinstate Makarios and refused to use force to stop the coup or subsequent Turkish intervention. These developments created arguments, which defended that the United States supported the coup and Turkey’s military intervention, in order to put Cyprus under NATO influence. However, this study defends that there is not enough evidence to support these arguments. The priorities of the USA on Cyprus between 1960-1974 were,  ensuring the island’s stability so that it won’t; cause a clash between Turkey and Greece, weaken the NATO cooperation in the Eastern Mediterranean, seek alliance with Soviets and create an opportunity for USSR to be involved in the problem. Within the framework of these priorities, Makarios did not pose a serious threat to the US.

1960 Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti’nin Cumhurbaşkanı Makarios, ülkesini Bağlantısızlar Hareketine dahil etmiş ve SSCB başta olmak üzere Doğu Kampıyla iyi ilişkiler geliştirmiştir. Buna, NATO üyesi Yunanistan ve Türkiye ile sorunlar yaşaması ve içeride komünist partinin desteğini alması da eklenince, ABD yönetimleri durumdan rahatsız olmuştur. 1974 Temmuz’unda, cunta yönetimindeki Yunanistan, Kıbrıs’ta bir darbe organize etmiş ve Makarios’u devirmiştir. Bir çok Avrupa ülkesi darbeyi kınarken ABD; yumuşak bir açıklama yapmış, Yunanistan’a askeri yardımını kesmemiş, Makarios’u göreve döndürmek konusunda isteksiz davranmış ve darbeyi ya da ardından gelen Türk müdahalesini durdurmak için güç kullanmayı reddetmiştir. Bu gelişmeler, ABD’nin adayı NATO etki alanına sokmak için darbeye ve devamında Türkiye’nin adanın %37’sini ele geçirmesine destek vermiş olduğuna dair argümanların ortaya atılmasına neden olmuştur. Bu çalışma ise söz konusu argümanları destekleyecek yeterli kanıtın mevcut olmadığını savunmaktadır. ABD’nin 1960-1974 arası Kıbrıs ile ilgili öncelikleri, adanın; Türkiye ve Yunanistan arasında çatışma yaratmayacak ve Doğu Akdeniz’deki NATO işbirliğine zarar vermeyecek kadar istikrarlı kalması, Doğu Bloğu ile fazla yakınlaşmaması ve SSCB’yi soruna müdahil edecek bir fırsat yaratmaması olmuştur. ABD açısından Makarios, bu önceliklere yönelik, ortadan kaldırılmasını gerektirecek kadar büyük bir tehdit oluşturmamıştır. 

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Orcid: 0000-0003-3227-8691
Yazar: Altuğ GÜNAL (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 31 Mart 2019

APA Günal, A . (2019). ABD’nin 1974 Kıbrıs Askeri Darbesindeki Rolü . OPUS Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi , 10 (17) , 2168-2207 . DOI: 10.26466/opus.521229